马恩点,刘晓莉.一次高原强降水过程及其云物理结构的数值模拟.气象科学,2018,(2):177-190 MA Endian,LIU Xiaoli.Numerical simulation of a heavy rainfall and its cloud physical structures in the Plateau.Journal of the Meteorological Sciences,2018,(2):177-190
一次高原强降水过程及其云物理结构的数值模拟
Numerical simulation of a heavy rainfall and its cloud physical structures in the Plateau
投稿时间:2016-12-05  修订日期:2017-08-30
DOI:10.3969/2017jms.0069
中文关键词:  青藏高原  强降水  数值模拟  云物理结构
英文关键词:Tibetan Plateau  Heavy rainstorm  Numerical simulation  Clouds physical structure
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41375137);高原大气与环境四川省重点实验室开放课题(PAEKL-2014-C4);江苏省气象科学研究所北极阁基金(BJG201304);气象灾害省部共建教育部重点实验室(南京信息工程大学)开放课题(KLME1205)
作者单位E-mail
马恩点 南京信息工程大学 中国气象局气溶胶-云-降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
刘晓莉 南京信息工程大学 中国气象局气溶胶-云-降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044 liuxiaoli2004y@nuist.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      本文利用中尺度WRF数值模式,对2010年8月7—8日发生在青藏高原东部一次强降水过程进行数值模拟,利用常规观测资料、FY卫星云图和数值模拟结果对此次强降水过程的宏微观演变特征和降水机制进行分析。本次模拟选用Milbrandt-Yau(MY)微物理方案,有较为完整的双参数计算过程,较为全面地考虑了各类云物理过程,对云微物理结构的描述和处理精细而复杂。结果表明,此次强对流降水发生在副热带高压与南亚高压相连、中高纬短波槽分裂南下、并与西南暖湿气流相遇形成低涡切变线的有利天气形势下,西南暖湿气流带来大量水汽、降水区存在大量不稳定能量、以及低层辐合高层辐散的高低空配置为暴雨发生发展提供了必要条件。WRF模式较好地模拟出了此次强降水过程的降水落区、降水中心和降水量级,对青海平安和甘南上空云团合并过程、强对流云团范围也模拟较好。对云微物理结构的分析结果表明,此次对流云降水为冷云降水,暖层浅薄,冰相粒子丰富,其中霰粒对过冷水的碰冻能力最强,使得其含量远大于冰雪晶含量,其融化是雨水的主要来源。雪晶含量最少,或与其碰冻过冷水能力较弱有关。
英文摘要:
      A heavy rainstorm occurring in the northeastern border of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau on August 7 to 8, 2010 was simulated by using WRF numerical model. Based on the conventional observation data, FY satellite images and the model output, the macro and micro evolution characteristics and mechanism of the rainstorm were studied in more detail. The simulation of Milbrandt-Yau scheme with complete double parameters calculation process, would describe the cloud physical processes in detail. The description and treatment of cloud microphysical structure is complicated.The results indicated that the heavy rainstorm happened under favorable condition of South Asian high connecting with subtropical high, the divided shortwave trough in middle-high latitudes moving southward and meeting with southeastern warm air, which formed low vortex with shear line; a large amount of water vapor and unstable energy, low-level convergence high-level divergence of empty configuration provides necessary conditions for development of storm rainfall. WRF model has simulated this heavy rainstorm event quite well, such as precipitation area, centers, magnitude and scope of cloud merging process, as well as strong convective cloud. The cloud structure of precipitation is cold cloud precipitation. The graupel has the strongest ability to freeze the cold cloud water, and content of graupel is much larger than the ice and snow. The graupel melting is the main source of rain. There is few snow in clouds, which may be related to its cold weather caused by freezing cold water.
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