陈雄,李崇银,谭言科,郭文华.2012年初欧洲严寒天气成因的分析.气象科学,2014,34(2):213-221 CHEN Xiong,LI Chongyin,TAN Yanke,GUO Wenhua.Cause analysis on European severe cold weather in early 2012.Journal of the Meteorological Sciences,2014,34(2):213-221
2012年初欧洲严寒天气成因的分析
Cause analysis on European severe cold weather in early 2012
投稿时间:2012-10-11  修订日期:2013-07-08
DOI:10.3969/2013jms.0076
中文关键词:  严寒天气  北极涛动  La Niñ  a事件  北大西洋涛动
英文关键词:Severe cold weather  Arctic Oscillation  La Niñ  a event  North Atlantic Oscillation
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(2013CB956203);自然科学基金项目(41275086)
作者单位E-mail
陈雄 解放军理工大学 气象海洋学院, 南京 211101  
李崇银 解放军理工大学 气象海洋学院, 南京 211101
中国科学院大气物理研究所 大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟国家重点实验室, 北京 100029 
lcy@lasg.iap.ac.cn 
谭言科 解放军理工大学 气象海洋学院, 南京 211101  
郭文华 解放军理工大学 气象海洋学院, 南京 211101  
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中文摘要:
      2012年初欧洲遭受了严重的低温严寒天气。分析表明:从对流层低层到高层持续的大气环流异常与此次严寒天气有着密切的联系,1、2月出现的北极涛动(AO)的强负异常是造成此次欧洲严寒天气的主要原因。AO负异常导致北大西洋副高异常偏强、偏东和偏北,使得暖湿空气沿副高北侧流向北极地区,极大减弱了欧洲暖湿空气的来源;同时使乌拉尔山高压强度偏强,位置偏西偏北,有利于上游偏强、偏北的大西洋副高的维持,并加强了极区冷空气南下西进,造成了南欧地区的严寒天气。AO负异常引起的地中海低压槽的加深,为北方冷空气的南下创造了有利条件,也使冷暖空气在地中海北岸交汇,从而导致亚平宁半岛和巴尔干半岛的暴雪天气。虽然La Niña事件对这次严寒天气也有一定的贡献,但AO负异常对这次严寒天气的作用远远大于La Niña事件的作用。
英文摘要:
      Analysis shows that the severe cold weather in European areas in early 2012 had close relationship with the persistent atmospheric circulation anomalies from low to high level in the troposphere. The strong negative anomaly of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in Jan. and Feb. was the main reason of this event, making the North Atlantic subtropical high extend eastward and northward together with enhanced intensity. At the same time, it forced the warm and wet air flow along its north side to the Arctic region, which weakened the warm and wet air source in the Europe. Meanwhile, the robust Ural high pressure shifted westward and northward, sustaining the North Atlantic subtropical high, and the polar cold air was enforced to invade southward to the South Europe. The deepened trough in Mediterranean was benefit to the invasion of cold air, leading to the warm and cold air convergence at the north coast of the Mediterranean, whereas the heavy snow disaster occurred in the Appennine Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula. The AO anomalies had much more effects on the severe cold weather than the La Niña did, though the latter played some roles in the weather.
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